A common feature of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases like schizophrenia or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is an increased inflammatory response of the brain. Causes may vary from an exposure to proinflammatory agents during development or an accumulation of degenerated neurons, oxidized proteins, glycated products, or lipid peroxidation in the adult brain.
Therefore, modulation of the prooxidant-antioxidant balance provides a therapeutic option which can be used to improve neuroprotection in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, the role of redox molecules, such as NO and ROS, as key mediators of immunity has renewed attention.
Figure: (Left) Effects of Ibudilast on NO release in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. (Right) Effects of ascorbic acid on ROS detection in FeCl2 stimulated SH-SY5Y cells.